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Tuesday, 14 June 2011

World Trade Center

World trade (World Trade Center) Center in Lower Manhattan in New York City are seven buildings on September 11 2001 terrorist attacks killed was a complex. This website is being now six new skyscrapers and killed or injured in these attacks with a memorial built. Their completion time, 1 World Trade Center and 2 World Trade Center and the world's tallest buildings in Empire State Building, which is in Manhattan surpassing.

U.S. $ 400 million for construction costs ($ 2,169,167,354 as of 2011) was. Original World Trade Center's twin 110-story first tower a tube length for structural design using in 1960s was designed by Minoru Yamasaki. The project received approval in New York and New Jersey Port Authority's Hudson and Manhattan railroad, the Port Authority Trans - (path) became Hudson agreed to take on. For World Trade Center Groundbreaking 5 August, 1966 held on. North (1) and South Tower December 1972 (2) Tower was completed in July 1973 ended, both collectively Twin Towers, the world's two tallest buildings were known as. Content of a large construction project is the amount used for Landfill in Lower Manhattan Battery Park City to the West was to have involved digging.

This complex in New York City's downtown financial district was located in the heart and 13.4 million square feet office space (million 1.24 m2) are included. Windows on the World restaurant, 1 World Trade Center (North Tower) is located on the 106th and 107th floor roof above the international inspection 2 World Trade Center (south tower) was located on the 107th floor. 4 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, 6 World Trade Center, which located in the United States Customs building another World Trade Center Marriott World Trade Centre. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1981. Last building 7 World Trade Center, which was built in 1985. King Kong and some other scenes mentioned, see World Trade Center in 1976 was filmed with. 13 February 1975 World Trade Center experience a fire, and 26 February, 1993 a bomb blast. World Trade Center Port Authority in 1998 decided to privatize, a private company to manage leasing of buildings, and in July 2001, Silverstein Properties is the leasing.

Morning of 11 September 2001, linked to Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked a coordinated attack on the premises, one in each tower, two 767 jets in flight. For 56 minutes after burning South Tower (2) collapsed, a half hour later, North Tower (1) World Trade Center attack resulted in 2,752 deaths followed. 7 World Trade Center and other buildings to the day after the accident, though they did not fall, because they were damaged after repair had to be demolished. World Trade Center site cleaning and restoration process took eight months. Web site first new building 7 World Trade Center, which was formed in May 2006. Lower Manhattan Development (LMDC) Corporation, established in November 2001, the reconstruction process, a website monitoring company event planning and design to select the monument. Memory-based, is designed by Daniel Libeskind, Master Plan, the 1,776 feet (541 meters) in a World Trade Center, three Church Street and designed by Michael Arad's memorial tower with office as selected.

Architectural design:
September 20, 1962 led by the Port Authority emery Roth and co-architect and architecture as Minoru Yamasaki as the children called for elections. Yamasaki's twin towers plan developed to include, Yamasaki's original plan is said to be tall towers 80 stories. To 10,000,000 square feet of office space for the needs of the Port Authority (m2 930,000)) to meet, all buildings will be 110 stories tall.
World Trade Center elevator setup and manage a special floor tower

Limited aspect of building a significant lift in height is a problem, taller than the building service elevator building, consuming more space - banks need to lift needs. Yamasaki and engineers two "sky lobby" with the floor using a new system where people changed a great potential that a group of local elevator goes to every destination can express a decided lift. This elevator shaft in one stack design allowed the local elevator. Each tower 44th, and is located on 78th floor sky lobby and elevators active manner when used 62 to 75 per cent on each floor elevator shafts to reduce the number of increase in the amount of usable space. Overall World Trade Center had 95 express and local elevators. This system New York City Subway system lines which local stations where local trains stop and express stations where all vehicles including off was inspired by.

Yamasaki's design for World Trade Center, 18 January 1964 announced to the public, nearly 208 feet (63 meters) on each side dimension of a square plan called for. Limited office buildings designed with windows 18 inches (46 cm) wide, height is the fear Yamasaki building with its residents to reflect a desire to feel safe. Yamasaki's design include building facades in Egypt aluminum sheathed. Ltd. World Trade Center construction policy of Corbusier's most striking implementation of the United States and is a Gothic Yamasaki expressed seminal modernist trends.

Besides the twin towers, World Trade Center complex planning for growth at four other buildings, which were built in the early 1970s included. 47-story 7 World Trade Center building in the 1980s in response to major complex was added. Overall, the main World Trade Center complex, a 16 acres (65,000 m2) superblock captured.
World Trade Center elevator setup and manage a special floor tower

Structural design:
Structural engineering firm Worthington, Skilling Helle, & Jackson has worked for Yamasaki's design implementation, structural tube length used in the twin towers mechanism. Port Authority Department of Engineering based on the work as engineers, Joseph (Joseph R. Loring & Associates as electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and as Jaros Baum, & Bolles. Tishman real estate and construction company's World Trade Center Project was general contractor. cow F. Tozzoli, director of the Port Authority World Trade Department, and Rino M. Monti, the Port Authority's chief engineer, the project oversaw. as an interstate agency, the New York Port Authority and local laws construction of City Code regulations was not. However, the Structural Engineers World Trade Center Building Code 1968 a new format has the following version. tube length design, first introduced by Fazlur Khan, a new more open approach that traditional design distributed throughout the interior columns supporting the building of a burden if allowed floor plan. World Trade Center towers used more power, carrying the burden - steel frame column Vierendeel trusses that closely spaced with a strong, hard wall is said to structure, such as urine and bear the burden of almost all the background support, and burden sharing with the main column seriously. Frame by structure consists of 59 columns per prefabricated modular pieces every three columns, three stories tall, spandrel plates containing linked with widespread use have been constructed. spandrel plates modular pieces off site fabrication shop to were welded to the column. adjacent columns and spandrels module located at the mid-term splices were bolted together. spandrel plates were located on each floor, between columns Shear stress distribution of the burden falling on them against the background of resistance allowed to work together. module staggered vertical joints between adjacent modules as if the column splices between the floor were not.

The main elevator tower and utility shafts, restrooms, three stairwells, and other places have helped. Important a common steel and concrete structure, a tower 135 feet from (27 by 41 meters) was a rectangular area 87 and 47 steel column base of the tower by running over. Between frames and covers a large, column free space was bridged by prefabricated floor trusses. Floor live load on their own weight is supported, external walls and partition walls between the external air load stability provides the background. Floor 4 inches (10 cm) thick lightweight concrete slabs laid on a fluted steel roof contain. Reducing lightweight trusses and main trusses supported a grid floor. Column associated with alternative frame trusses and 6 feet 8 inches (2.03 m) were the centers. the top chords of trusses on the outside and a big reason by the interior column welded channel were bolted to seats welded to the spandrels. Viscoelastic dampers floor building that help residents feel dominated by reducing the amount of the frame with spandrels plates were attached to.

Hat trusses (or "outrigger truss") from the 107th floor of buildings located on top of a building above a long chat support designed antenna. 1 only the World Trade Center (North Tower) was originally installed an antenna, it was added in 1978. long axis of the main truss system and with real axis with four contains six trusses. This frame truss system and load distribution between the main columns allowed and supported the transmission tower.

Steel tube frame with cover and frame design safe spray column using fire resistant material is a relatively light structure such as the Empire State Building on traditional structures that fat for fireproofing, masonry is heavy compared to air That answer must have been created more structure elements steel. During the design process of wind tunnel test design wind pressure the World Trade Center towers and structure to those subjected to forces can answer was to set up. Residents evaluate the experiences so dominated, however, can tolerate the rest was done, dizziness and many other subjects experienced ill effects. One of the chief engineers engineer Leslie Robertson Canada Alan G. Davenport worked with viscoelastic dampers to absorb some of the dominated to develop. The viscoelastic dampers, floor trusses and some other structural changes between frames column joints with the structure used at an acceptable level of building sway.


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